Layer 1

Layer 1s are base blockchains like BTC and ETH. Layer 1s can process and finalize transactions on their own blockchain and have their own native token. Layer 1s struggle with scalability because as they grow their transaction speed slows significantly. Other layers exist primarily to solve the limitations of layer 1s.

https://academy.binance.com/en/articles/what-is-layer-1-in-blockchain

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